B C D
E F G H
I J K L
M N O P
Q R S T
U V W X
Resistance- The ability to resist removal or damage from me-chanical
Hardness- Chemicals, generally metal fluorosilicates, applied
to concrete or terrazzo, which react with the free lime and calcium
carbonates present to form silica quartz, a very hard substance.
The result is con-crete or terrazzo with a harder surface than that
obtained without acid hardening.
Specific types of building blocks (monomers) used in creating polymers
and resins. Acrylics add tough-ness, durability, and removal properties
to the poly-mer or resin.
Ingredients- Ingredients, which promote claimed results. Usu-ally,
this term is associated with products registered with the E P A,
in which case the active ingredients are those constituents which
are recognized as providing the claimed pesticidal properties, e.g.,
insecticide, rodenticide, bactericide, etc.
The ability of a floor finish to adhere to the substrate by physical
or chemical means.
Soluble Polymer- A polymer, which can form a clear solution
when, dissolved in a sufficient amount of base such as ammonia and
An organic chemical characterized by the pres-ence of nitrogen and
an alkaline pH. Unlike am-monia type strippers, amine type strippers
are pleas-ant to work with, as they are free at strong ammonia odor
and do not irritate the nose and eyes.
Detergent- A material which carries a negative charge. Most
soaps are anionic, as they combine fatty ads and an alkali. Oleate
Soap, Amine Soap, Sodium Soap and combinations of the three are
frequently used in cleaners.
Any material added to a floor polish to control foam. Most commonly
used substances are silicone emulsions.
Tile- A flooring material made of asbestos fibers, pig-ments
and inert fillers bound together with an as-phalt or resin binder.
Ingredients are mixed, heated, then rolled out in sheets and cut
to size. Asphalt tile is also furnished in a grade designated as
-grease proof. Oils and solvents should be avoided on all types.
One possible way to distinguish asphalt file from vinyl asbestos,
which is also hard and brittle at nor-mal temperatures, is to rub
the file in an incon-spicuous spot with a rag dampened with petroleum
naphtha. Any color transfer from the file to the cloth indicates
that the tile is asphalt instead of vinyl as-bestos. Rubber tile
will also show some color trans-fer, but rubber tile can be indented
with a fingernail.
Capable of being decomposed or broken by bio-logical organisms or
action. Generally refers to detergents and cleaners.
Whitening or dulling caused during application of floor finishes.
It can occur if re-application is done too quickly or if too much
product is used, and usu-ally occurs with self-sensitive (alkali
soluble) sys-tems. Bite-in can be detected by increased drag during
application of multiple coats.
Marking- Black marks left on the floor finish caused by rub-ber
being abraded from rubber heels of shoes.
Heel Mark Resistance- Resistance to permanent transfer of material
from a shoe heel to a floor finish. Carefully selected waxes are
employed to improve black heel mark resistance.
Requires mechanical action to produce a gloss.
Floor Finish- A term used to describe any solvent or water based
finish requiring mechanical action to improve gloss and/or general
Multiple layers of dirt, grime, wax, or floor finish.
A maintenance method used to produce a gloss with frictional heat
and vigorous mechanical action.
A hard wax obtained from the leaves of the Carnuba palm tree. This
wax is emulsifiable and yields a glossy, durable, buffable film
when property formu-lated in aqueous floor waxes. Carnuba wax is
graded in five categories. Only types I and 2 are used appreciably
in floor waxes because of there lighter color. Types 3 through 5
come from more mature leaves, and are darker in color.
Tile- A flooring material made from a mixture of special clays
and colorants that are fused together at high temperature into a
hard brick like or porcelain sub-stance. Sometimes coated with a
thin film of vitre-ous material called glazing.
Resistance- Ability to withstand an assortment of chemicals
such as gasoline or alcohol without being damaged.
Clearness; Lack of haze or light scattering properties.
To blend together to unite into a whole to fuse. As related to floor
finishes, the formulation of the film as the water evaporates.
A solvent, usually a glycol or glycol ether, which helps promote
the union of individual emulsion particles into a continuous film.
A flooring material made from a mixture of sand, gravel, Portland
cement and modifying additives, which react, with water to form
a hard rocklike sub-stance. Portland cement is the 'glue' which
holds the other materials together. Hardening occurs through hydration
of these materials.
Flooring- A flooring material that will conduct electricity
to reduce hazards from unwanted static electricity such as sparks
in an explosive environment. Conductive floors offer a resistance
of 25,000 to 1,000,000 ohms per 3 lineal feet. Conductive floor-ing
materials include linoleum, terrazzo. ceramic tile, vinyl, and rubber.
Conductivity is achieved by using acetylene carbon, cupric salts,
or other spe-cial conducting materials. Wire mesh may also be laid
directly under the tile to assure uniform con-ductance of the entire
Tile- A flooring material composed of ground cork with or without
resins that is compressed and heat cured into the finished product.
Chosen mostly for its beauty and sound deadening properties. Cork
is best maintained with organic solvent-based prod-ucts such as
Traffic Wax paste or liquid.
A solvent which modifies the performance or sta-bility characteristics
Formation of an opaque off colored layer at the top of a liquid
An entity, which attaches two, chains of polymer molecules together
by forming a chemical bond.
Mopping- A maintenance method using a well-wrung out mop dampened
with water or cleaning solution to re-move light soil from floors.
A substance used to reduce foaming due to agitation. Defoamers include
silicone fluids and organic phosphates.
A chemical which is used for cleaning surfaces, which may posses
various properties such as surface wetting, soil emulsification,
soil dispersion or soil suspension. A type of chemical which possesses
surfactant properties, including surface wetting, soil dispersion,
etc. This detergent chemical does not ionize with positive or negative
charges. It is compatible in mixtures with either cationic or anionic
surfactants. It is not compatible, however, with phenolic germicides.
Resistance- Ability to withstand treatment with detergent solution
such as 1:40 GP Forward to water without being damaged.
Embodiment- Presence of trapped dirt and foreign matter which
cannot be removed by detergent washing. Soft films or excess plasticizer
are the usual causes of dirt embodiment. Dry
Floor Finish- A term meaning the same as self-polishing floor
Buffing- A maintenance method using floor machine and appropriate
polishing pad or brush to restore floor finish to glossy appearance.
Stripping- A maintenance technique used to remove floor finish
with a floor machine, suitable pad, and spray stripping solution.
Time- Four types of drying phenomena exist:
Dry to Touch - (sometimes called dry to eye or visual dryness)
Time when film feels or appears dry.
Tack Free Time - Time when dry materials, such as dust or
tissue, cannot be made to adhere to the surface even when pressure
Recoat Time- Time when additional coat can be applied to
previous coat without bad effects such as whitening.
Full Cure Time - Time when physical properties of film are fully
developed and, therefore, cease to change.
Resistance to change from original appearance. Durability is term
used to describe how long polish film will resist changes in appearance
caused by foot traffic or other types of wear before spray buffing,
recoating, or stripping is considered necessary. Terms used to describe
durability include abrasion resistance, adhesion, black heel mark
resistance, lack of dirt embodiment, hardness, scuff resistance,
scratch resistance, detergent resistance, and gloss retention.
Mopping-A maintenance method used to remove dust from floors
with a dry or specially treated mop.
A chemical agent used to suspend one incompatible material in another.
Generally, one end of an emulsifier molecule is soluble in water;
the other end is soluble in organic solvent. This dual solubility
helps hold the dissimilar liquids together.
A stable mixture of water and water insoluble materials) in
a finely divided state accomplished means of one or more surface-active
agents, such as soap or synthetic emulsifiers.
Polymer- A polymer which exists in two phases. A continuous
phase, which is usually water and a dispersed phase, which consists
of polymer particles suspended in the continuous phase through the
use of substances, called emulsifiers.
Finish- A temporary coating applied to flooring material during
manufacture for ease of manufacturing and protection during shipment
and installation. It is recommended that this coating, often referred
to as mill finish, be removed before being treated with a polish.
An extremely thin continuous sheet of substance. The protective
value of any film depends on it being 100% continuous, i.e., without
holes or cracks, since it must form an efficient barrier to molecules
of atmospheric water vapor, oxygen, etc.
Small round surface imperfections in a polish film caused by
localized differences in surface tension, induced convection, or
by the wet film receding from incompatible entities in the product
or on the substrate. Oil, silicone, or other hydrophobic materials
are the usually causes of fisheyes.
Polish- A temporary coating that enhances the appearance and
protects the substrate to which it is applied. Also called Floor
Finish, Floor Wax.
Sealer- A coating, temporary or permanent applied to a floor
before applying finishing coats to help fill voids and pours in
the floor surface. Fewer finish coats are necessary because less
product is absorbed by the floor and results in a more uniform appearance.
Floor sealers might be necessary to promote adhesion of finish coats.
A fluorinated surfactant which, through its ability to lower the
surface tension of liquid, can improve the leveling and wetting
characteristics of floor polishes.
A combination of visual perceptions which promote the appearance
of wetness. Terms used when describing gloss include:
Depth how deep or thick the surface appears
Clarity lock of haziness, cloudiness, or a milky appearance.
Uniformity lack of unevenness.
Reflectance (shine) ration of reflected versus incident light.
Distinctness of image lack of distortion that the surface causes
to reflected images.
Sheen amount of low active reflectance
Hue the amount of bluish coloration promoting the perception of
depth seen in clear films.
An expression of the concentration of inorganic salts in water which
prevents effective cleaning and germicidal action. Hardness is measured
in ppm (parts per million) calculated as calcium carbonate’ (CaCO.).Also
Knoop Hardness value relating resistance to indentation by a weighted
wedge shaped diamond. (b) Pencil Hardness a measure related to the
hardness of various grades of graphite. Pencil Hardness is related
to a polishes’ resistance to both indentation and tearing, Very
soft 4B, 3B, 2B, B, HB, F, H, 2H, 3H, 4H, 5H, 6H, 7H, 8H Very Hard.
Solids- A floor polish which has a 20% or higher non-volatile
content. Unlike concentrates high solids products are generally
used without dilution.
A bluish coloration promoting the perception of depth in clear
Testing- The evaluation of performance of a product, procedure,
or item of equipment under as compared to evaluation under highly
controlled artificial conditions (laboratory testing).
The propensity for an applied aqueous polishes to spread and dry
to smooth, uniform film.
Aid- A substance which can be added to a floor polish which
allows it to dry to a more even appearing film.
A flooring material composed of mixture of oxidized linseed
oil, resin, and various fillers such as sawdust, ground cork, mineral
filler and coloring material which is cured for several weeks in
specially heated buildings. Linoleum is soft, porous, and tends
to discolor and become more porous when subjected to amines and
alkaline strippers and cleaners.
A flooring material composed of a form of limestone hard enough
to be polished. Purest grade used by sculptors is called Statuary
Marble. A softer, more porous version called Travertine is usually
used for floors. Travertine Marble is known to harden on exposure
to air. Marble is damaged by alkaline cleaners, soaps and acids;
it also stains easily.
Complex- A crosslink of a bivalent metal ion (usually zinc)
between the acid functional groups of two polymer chains. Metal
complexes can provide a reaction site for aid in removal, detergent
resistance, and durability in floor polishes.
Interlock- A formulation technique by which metal is chemically
complexed with the polymer and/or resin in an aqueous finish or
sealer. The use of bivalent metal ions such as zinc or zirconium
to bind together and form a crosslinked network with add containing
polymer chains. This technique causes the dried film to be more
durable and detergent resistant while still allowing its ready removal
with amine type strippers.
Forming Temperature)- The temperature below which a polymer
or floor polish will not form a continuous film.
Finish- A finish applied by the file manufacturer to resilient
floor tile, which must be removed for proper sealing and finishing.
and Shine- A maintenance method using a special mop on composition
which lightly cleans and improves the gloss of a worn floor finish.
Gloss improvement is accomplished by a new thin coat of product
or possibly by rejuvenation of the original finish.
Wax Flooring- A broad class of flooring materials usually having
a clear organic wear layer, usually urethane over a vinyl backing.
It is usually textured and designed for minimum maintenance.
Buffable Finish- Generally, a finish, which dries to a high
durable gloss and cannot be dry buffed to restore shine. Since the
advent of spray buffing, this term is seldom used. Non-ionic
Initials of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, a federal act
passed in 1970. O.S.H.A. is designed to provide every working man
and woman in the nation with safe and healthful working conditions.
O.S.H A. provides the standards inspection and enforcement program
to accomplish these goals.
The measurement symbol used to express the degree of acidity
or alkalinity. A pH of I expresses an extreme condition, while a
pH of 14 is highly alkaline. The pH scale runs from less than 1.0
to 14, and neutrality is centered at pH 7.0.
Migration- Migration of ingredients from there intended location.
Migration of plasticizers from flooring materials can cause tackiness
in floor finishes or adhesion problems. Migration from floor finish
to flooring is also possible.
An organic compound to a polymer to increase its flexibility
and toughness. Plasticizers contribute to the durability, gloss,
and leveling of a floor polish.
Plasticizer used primarily in finishes.
A chemical compound composed of many similar, smaller parts chemically
linked to one another. As related to emulsion floor finishes and
sealers, polymers are the major film forming agent which contributes
gloss and durability to the finish or sealer.
A thermoplastic polymer which has excellent hardness and gloss.
A condition where a fine dust occurs on the finished floor surface,
often obvious when tracked onto adjacent carpeting. Often, powdering
is due to dust settling out where construction or other sources
of dust are present. Other times, powdering is indicative of a lack
of floor finish (or sealer) adhesion, loss of plasticizing agents
to the substrate or to cleaning solutions, or application while
temperature or relative humidity is too low to allow proper film
formation. The causes of lack of adhesion are numerous soap residues,
insufficient stripping of old finish, applying finish too thinly.
A maintenance method where additional coats of floor finish
are applied without prior stripping. Successful recoat is dependent
on substrate, preparation of substrate, and amount of time between
Capable of withstanding shock or pressure without permanent deformation
or rupture. Asphalt, vinyl, linoleum are resilient type flooring
Flooring- Flexible flooring materials including asphalt tile, cork,
linoleum, no wax, rubber, seamless floors, vinyl, and vinyl asbestos.
As related to emulsion finishes and sealers, resins are materials,
which contribute primarily to leveling and gloss of the resultant
film. Resins are polymers, but contain fewer chemically linked units
than what are commonly called polymers.
A maintainer for UHS finishes which adds 1/4 of 1 coat of product.
Flooring materials made up of natural or synthetic rubber rolled
and heat cured into a final product.
Imperfection in the smoothness of a polish film caused by a
Damage to a polish film caused by the frictional heat and mechanical
action from a high-speed impact of shoe material.
Scratches or marring of the finish, due primarily to foot traffic,
which appears dull as compared to unscuffed areas.
Application of a coating to a bare substrate and to fill pores
to prevent excessive absorption of the finish coats.
A floor finish or furniture polish that dries to a shine and
needs no further effort to bring about a shine. Most modem polishes
are of the self-shine type. Other terms use to describe this type
of polish are Dry Bright and Non Buffable.
Term applied to low angle gloss.
Resistance- The drag noticed when walking on a floor that results
in safer footing; the amount of resistance to slipping, usually
with reference to the sole or heel of a shoe on a floor.
Hydroxide- Caustic used in the manufacture of detergents and
soap. Sodium Metasilicate- Base for detergent formulations.
Silicate- Catalyst for soaps and detergents. Sodium Xylenesulfonate-
Water softener used in detergents.
Content (Non-Volatile)- That portion of the product (floor finish,
sealer, cleaner, etc.) which remains as the film or residue after
drying has occurred. The solids content is usually expressed as
percent by weight of the total product. Often, solids is considered
as a measurement of the quality, durability, and performance of
a product. This is false logic and can be very misleading as a measure
of any product performance property.
Buffable- A liquid or paste composed of waxes, synthetic or
natural, dispensed in an organic solvent. When applied and allowed
to dry, solvent based buffable polishes haze and must be buffed
to achieve gloss.
A thick resistant cell coat which forms within the cell wall
as a resting stage. The spore is very resis-tant to disinfectants
and germicides and usually is usually destroyed only by sterilization
procedures (autoclaving, ethylene oxide, etc.).
Buff- To renew, touch up, or maintain a floor by spraying an
approved spray buff product followed by ma-chine buffing. Restores
worn floor coatings.
Buffing- A maintenance procedure used to restore a worn dull
floor finish to a glossy appearance with a floor machine, special
buffing pad, and special prod-uct. A typical spray buff operation
consists of spray-ing a fine mist of product onto a section of floor,
then using a floor machine equipped with a buffing pad to buff the
floor finish to a gloss.
Ability to resist change in physical or performance properties due
to time or environmental stresses such as freezing and thawing,
heat, or microbial attack. Emulsion floor care products are considered
stable if changes caused by aging under expected envi-ronmental
extremes will not affect product safety, product performance, or
be detectable by the con-sumer for the duration for the products
expected shelf life.
The act or process, physical or chemical, which destroys or eliminates
all forms of life, especially microorganisms.
A non-uniform appearance left in a floor finish film by the application
A product used to remove coatings from floor sub-strates. Specific
types are needed for water based coatings; other Types are needed
for solvent based coatings.
A maintenance method for removal of floor finishes. After the stripping
operation, the floors are rinsed thor-oughly before applying a fresh
coat of floor polish. A monomer or building block used in the prepara-tion
of emulsion polymers and resins used in floor finishes and sealers.
Styrene imparts very hard, glossy, water-resistant properties.
Tension- That property, due to molecular forces, by which the
surface film of all liquids tends to bring the con-tained volume
into a form having the least superfi-cial area.
A contraction of the words 'surface active agent.' This is the general
name given to the type of sur-face- active agents used in cleaners.
The surfac-tant reduces surface tension and provides improved wetting,
emulsifying, penetrating, and dispersing properties. There are three
types of surfactants: anionic, cationic, and non-ionic.
An ingredient that, by its nature, multiplies the ef-fectiveness
of the product. For example, an insec-ticide plus a synergist does
not add up as I + 1 = 2, but rather 1 + 1 = 4 or perhaps 8, when
A polished surface floor consisting of marble or gran-ite chips
mixed with a Portland cement matrix. The mixture is trowed onto
the floor, leveled, and allowed to cure for a period of 5 to 6 days.
The surface is then ground with an abrasive stone grinder and polished.
Use of harsh acids and alkalis should be avoided. Also prepared
in factories as finished slabs.
A polymer that softens when exposed to heat and returns to its original
condition when cooled to room temperature. The polymers, resins
and waxes used in floor polishes are thermoplastic.
to Recoat- The time from application when an additional coat
of floor polish can be applied without damaging the previous coat.
Coating- A maintenance procedure for applying an addi-tional
coat of floor finish. Top Scrubbing Floor cleaning operation using
detergent solution and floor machine equipped with a special clean-ing
pad. After scrubbing, the floor is rinsed and allowed to dry.
scrubbing- is usually conducted so those additional coats of
floor finish can be ap-plied without stripping off the previous
A protective coating composed of a vegetable oil (linseed, tung,
etc.) and a solvent, or of a synthetic or natural resin and solvent.
A flooring material composed of a mixture of vari-ous vinyl compounds
(Vinyl Chloride, Vinyl Acetate), asbestos, ground limestone, plasticizers,
and colorants. Heated mixture is rolled into a final prod-uct. Noted
for superior grease resistance and ease of maintenance. It indents
and is susceptible to heel damage. It is porous and requires sealing
to prevent staining. Vinyl Asbestos tiles are generally hard, brittle
and appear to be porous on close in-spection. Occasionally, discrete
white filler par-ticles can be seen in the tile.
Flooring- A flooring material made up of a mixture of polyvinyl
chloride and plasticizers Pigments are added for color. Vinyl flooring
is usually flexible; fine textured, and appears to be relatively
Buffable Floor Finish- A water based emulsion coating whose
appear-ance and/ or gloss may be improved through me-chanical action.
The primary film forming ingredi-ents in this type of product there
are usually waxes.
Self-Polishing- A water based polish, not necessarily an emulsion,
which dried to a shine without mechanical action.
Urethane- A colloidal dispersion of isocyanate containing poly-mers
noted for casting very tough and flexible films. The major benefit
obtained from this material is abrasion resistance.
A low melting compound of high molecular weight similar in composition
to fats and oils. There are two types: Natural (animal and vegetable
derived) and Synthetic (such as polymers of ethylene). The wax functions
as a film in floor polishes to help prevent scuffs and black marks
and as a slip resis-tance moderator.
Emulsion- A stable mixture of one or more waxy materials helps
in a water suspension through the use of emulsifiers, surfactants
Ability of a floor finish or cleaner to spread over substrate during